# Teaching and Learning

Welcome! Our team's goal is to provide instructional, curricular, and technological support for our students and staff. We strive to ensure everyone is equipped with the tools and information to meet their wide array of needs, regardless of age or position.

We work to coordinate standards-based curriculum, a comprehensive assessment program and professional learning opportunities that culminate in Detroit Lakes Public Schools students and staff experiencing quality teaching and learning.

Through creation of a standards-based curriculum that is aligned to the MN Department of Education Academic Standards, our staff collaboratively identify essential learning outcomes in each content area as the primary focus of instruction. In DLPS, a common standards-based curriculum guarantees that Professional Learning Communities (PLCs) of grade level teachers will have access to the resources necessary to plan, teach, and assess instruction and student learning effectively.

Engagement is a continuous process in our ever-changing world; our team works diligently to stay in front of solid practice and fine-tuned techniques that keep our students and teachers challenged and curious. Learning is a lifetime process for everyone in Detroit Lakes Public Schools

To view the MN Standards, what our curriculum is aligned with, please visit the MDE Academic Standards website.

## Essential Learning Outcomes

## Kindergarten

## Language Arts & Reading

##### Language Arts/ Reading

**Reading Literature**

**Key Ideas and Details:**

- With prompting and support, retell familiar stories, including key details.
- With prompting and support, identify characters, settings, and major events in a story.

**Informational Text**

**Key Ideas and Details:**

- With prompting and support, identify the main topic and retell key details of a text.

**Foundational Skills**

**Print Concepts:**

- Follow words from left to right.
- Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.
- Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.
- Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant, or C VC) words.* ( This does not include CVCs ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.)
- Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.

**Phonological Awareness:**

- Recognize and produce rhyming words.
- Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words.
- Blend and segment onsets and rimes of single-syllable spoken words.
- Isolate and pronounce the initial, medial vowel, and final sounds (phonemes) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant or CVC) words. (This does not include CVC’s ending with /l/, /r/, or /x/.)
- Add or substitute individual sounds (phonemes) in simple, one-syllable words to make new words.

**Phonics and Word Recognition:**

- Demonstrate basic knowledge of one-to-one letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or many of the most frequent sounds for each consonant.
- Associate the long and short sounds with common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels.
- Read common high frequency words by sight (e.g., the, of, to, you, she, my, is, are, do, does.)
- Distinguish between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.

**Fluency: **

- Read emergent-reader texts with purpose and understanding.

###### Writing

**Writing Process: Production and Distribution of Writing:**

- With guidance and support from adults, respond to questions and suggestions from adults and peers and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

###### Speaking, Viewing, Listening and Media Literacy

**Comprehension and Collaboration:**

- Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about kindergarten topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
- Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., listening to others and taking turns speaking about the topics and texts under discussion).
- Continue a conversation through multiple exchanges.
- Listen to others and name emotions by observing facial expression and other nonverbal cues.

**Language**

**Vocabulary Acquisition and Use:**

- Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on kindergarten reading and content.
- Identify new meanings for familiar words and apply them accurately (e.g., knowing duck is a bird and learning the verb to duck).
- Use the most frequently occurring inflections and affixes (e.g., -ed, -s, re-, un-, pre-, -ful, -less) as clue to the meaning of an unknown word.

## Math

##### Math

**Number & Operation:**

- Read, write, and represent whole numbers from 0 to at least 31. Representations may include numerals, pictures, real objects and picture graphs, spoken words, and manipulatives such as connecting cubes. For example: Represent the number of students taking hot lunch with tally marks.
- Count, with and without objects, forward and backward to at least 20.
- Compare and order whole numbers, with and without objects, from 0 to 20. For example: Put the number cards 7, 3, 19 and 12 in numerical order.
- Compose and decompose numbers up to 10 with objects and pictures. For example: A group of 7 objects can be decomposed as 5 and 2 objects, or 2 and 3 and 2, or 6 and 1.

**Algebra:**

- Identify, create, complete, and extend simple patterns using shape, color, size, number, sounds and movements. Patterns may be repeating, growing or shrinking such as ABB, ABB, ABB or ●,●●,●●●.

**Geometry & Measurement:**

- Recognize basic two- and three-dimensional shapes such as squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, trapezoids, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders and spheres.
- Sort objects using characteristics such as shape, size, color and thickness.

## 1st Grade

## Reading & Language Arts

##### Reading

###### Reading Literature

** Key Ideas and Details: **

- Ask and answer questions about key details in a text
- Describe characters, settings, and major events in a story, using key details.

Foundational Skills

**Print Concepts:**

- Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print.
- Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation).

**Phonological Awareness:**

- Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes).
- Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single syllable words.
- Orally produce single syllable words by blending sounds (phonemes), including consonant blends.
- Isolate and pronounce initial, medial vowel, and final single-syllable words.
- Segment spoken single syllable words into their complete sequence of individual sounds (phonemes).

**Phonics and Word Recognition:**

- Decode regularly spelled one-syllable words.
- Recognize and read grade-appropriate irregularly spelled, including high frequency words.

**Fluency:**

- Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.

###### Writing

**Writing process: Production and Distribution of writing:**

- With guidance and support from adults, focus on a topic, respond to questions and suggestions from adults and peers, and add details to strengthen writing as needed.

**Comprehension and Collaboration:**

- Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions ( e.g., listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).

###### Language

**Conventions of Standard English:**

- Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
- Print all upper and lower case letters.
- Use conventional spelling for words with common spelling patterns and for frequently occurring irregular words.

## Math

##### Math

**Number and Operation: **

- Use place value to describe whole numbers between 10 and 100 in terms of tens and ones. For example: Recognize the numbers 21 to 29 as 2 tens and a particular number of ones.
- Read, write and represent whole numbers up to 120. Representations may include numerals, addition and subtraction, pictures, tally marks, number lines and manipulatives, such as bundles of sticks and base 10 blocks.
- Count, with and without objects, forward and backward from any given number up to 120.
- Find a number that is 10 more or 10 less than a given number. For example: Using a hundred grid, find the number that is 10 more than 27.
- Compare and order whole numbers up to 120.
- Compose and decompose numbers up to 12 with an emphasis on making ten. For example: Given 3 blocks, 7 more blocks are needed to make 10.
- Recognize the relationship between counting and addition and subtraction. Skip count by 2s, 5s, and 10s.

**Algebra:**

- Create simple patterns using objects, pictures, numbers and rules. Identify possible rules to complete or extend patterns. Patterns may be repeating, growing or shrinking. Calculators can be used to create and explore patterns. For example: Describe rules that can be used to extend the pattern 2, 4, 6, 8, ¨, ¨, ¨ and complete the pattern 33, 43, ¨, 63, ¨, 83 or 20, ¨, ¨, 17.
- Represent real-world situations involving addition and subtraction basic facts, using objects and number sentences. For example: One way to represent the number of toys that a child has left after giving away 4 of 6 toys is to begin with a stack of 6 connecting cubes and then break off 4 cubes.
- Use number sense and models of addition and subtraction, such as objects and number lines, to identify the missing number in an equation such as: 2 + 4 = ¨ 3 + ¨ = 7 5 = ¨ – 3.
- Use addition or subtraction basic facts to represent a given problem situation using a number sentence. For example: 5 + 3 = 8 could be used to represent a situation in which 5 red balloons are combined with 3 blue balloons to make 8 total balloons.

**Geometry & Measurements: **

- Describe characteristics of two- and three-dimensional objects, such as triangles, squares, rectangles, circles, rectangular prisms, cylinders, cones and spheres. For example: Triangles have three sides and cubes have eight vertices (corners).
- Describe characteristics of two- and three-dimensional objects, such as triangles, squares, rectangles, circles, rectangular prisms, cylinders, cones and spheres. For example: Triangles have three sides and cubes have eight vertices (corners).
- Identify pennies, nickels and dimes; find the value of a group of these coins, up to one dollar.

## 2nd Grade

## Reading & Language Arts

##### Reading & Language Arts

Reading Literature

**Craft and Structure: **

- Describe the overall structure of a story, including describing how the beginning introduces the story and the ending concludes the action.
- Acknowledge differences in the points of view of characters, including by speaking in a different voice for each character when reading dialogue aloud.

###### Informational Text

**Key Ideas and Details:**

- Ask and answer such questions as who, what, where, when, why, and how to demonstrate understanding of key details in a text.
- Identify the main topic of a multiparagraph text as well as the focus of specific paragraphs within the text.

###### Foundational Skills

**Fluency: **

- Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
- Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding to promote oral and silent reading fluency.
- Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
- Use context and other cues (e.g., phonics, word recognition skills, prior knowledge) to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

###### Writing

**Text Types and Purposes:**

- With guidance and support from adults, and peers, focus on a topic and strengthen writing as needed by revising and editing.

Speaking, Viewing, Listening and Media Literacy

**Comprehension on and Collaboration:**- Participate in collaborative conversations with diverse partners about grade 2 topics and texts with peers and adults in small and larger groups.
- Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
- Build on others’ talk in conversations by linking their comments to the remarks of others.
- Ask for clarification and further explanation as needed about the topics and texts under discussion.
- Cooperate for productive group discussion.
- Follow two-three- step oral directions.

###### Language

**Vocabulary Acquisition and Use:**

- Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
- Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
- Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a know word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell).
- Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., addition, additional).
- Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e..g, birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark).
- Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases.

## Math

##### Math

**Number and Operation:**

- Read, write and represent whole numbers up to 1000. Representations may include numerals, addition, subtraction, multiplication, words, pictures, tally marks, number lines and manipulatives, such as bundles of sticks and base 10 blocks.
- Compare and order whole numbers up to 1000.
- Demonstrate fluency with basic addition facts and related subtraction facts.
- Solve real-world and mathematical addition and subtraction problems involving whole numbers with up to 2 digits.
- Use addition and subtraction to create and obtain information from tables, bar graphs and tally charts.

**Algebra:**

- Use number sentences involving addition, subtraction, and unknowns to represent given problem situations. Use number sense and properties of addition and subtraction to find values for the unknowns that make the number sentences true. For example: How many more players are needed if a soccer team requires 11 players and so far only 6 players have arrived? This situation can be represented by the number sentence 11 – 6 = p or by the number sentence 6 + p = 11.

**Geometry & Measurement:**

- Demonstrate an understanding of the relationship between length and the numbers on a ruler by using a ruler to measure lengths to the nearest centimeter or inch. For example: Draw a line segment that is 3 inches long.

## 3rd Grade

## Reading & Language Arts

##### Reading and Language Arts

###### Reading Literature

**Key Ideas and Details:**

- Recount stories, including fables, folktales, and myths from diverse cultures; determine the central message, lesson, or moral and explain how it is conveyed through key details in the text.
- Describe characters in a story in a story (e.g., their traits, motivations, or feelings) and explain how their actions contribute to the sequence of events.
- Integration of knowledge and ideas:
- Compare and contrast the themes, settings, and plots of stories written by the same author about the same or similar characters (e.g., in books from a series).

Informational Text

**Key Ideas and Details:**

- Determine the main idea of a text; recount the key details and explain how they support the main idea.
- Foundational Skills

**Fluency: **

- Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
- Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
- Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
- Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding rereading as necessary.

Writing

**Writing Process: Production and Distribution of Writing: **

- With guidance and support from peers and adults, use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, and editing. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1-3 up to and including grade 3 on page 41-42.)

###### Speaking, Viewing, Listening and Media Literacy

**Comprehension on and Collaboration:**

- Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 3 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
- Come to discussions prepared, having read or studied required material; explicitly draw on that preparation and other information known about the topic to explore ideas under discussion.
- Follow agreed-upon rules for discussions (e.g., gaining the floor in respectful ways, listening to others with care, speaking one at a time about the topics and texts under discussion).
- Ask questions to check understanding of information presented, stay on topic, and link their comments to the remarks of others.
- Explain their own ideas and understand in light of the discussion.
- Cooperate and compromise as appropriate for productive group discussions.
- Follow multi-step oral directions.

Language

**Vocabulary Acquisition and Use:**

- Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
- Use sentence-level context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
- Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known affix is added to a known word (e.g., agreeable/disagreeable, comfortable/uncomfortable, care/careless, heat/preheat).
- Use a known root word as a clue to the meaning of an unknown word with the same root (e.g., company, companion).
- Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

## Math

##### Math

**Number and Operation:**

- Read, write and represent whole numbers up to 100,000. Representations may include numerals, expressions with operations, words, pictures, number lines, and manipulatives such as bundles of sticks and base 10 blocks.
- Add and subtract multi-digit numbers, using efficient and generalizable procedures based on knowledge of place value, including standard algorithms.
- Represent multiplication facts by using a variety of approaches, such as repeated addition, equal-sized groups, arrays, area models, equal jumps on a number line and skip counting. Represent division facts by using a variety of approaches, such as repeated subtraction, equal sharing and forming equal groups. Recognize the relationship between multiplication and division.
- Read and write fractions with words and symbols. Recognize that fractions can be used to represent parts of a whole, parts of a set, points on a number line, or distances on a number line. For example: Parts of a shape (3/4 of a pie), parts of a set (3 out of 4 people), and measurements (3/4 of an inch).

**Algebra: **

- Use multiplication and division basic facts to represent a given problem situation using a number sentence. Use number sense and multiplication and division basic facts to find values for the unknowns that make the number sentences true. For example: Find values of the unknowns that make each number sentence true 6 = p ÷ 9 24 = a × b 5 × 8 = 4 × t. Another example: How many math teams are competing if there is a total of 45 students with 5 students on each team? This situation can be represented by 5 × n = 45 or 45/5 = n or 45/n = 5.

**Geometry & Measurements:**

- Identify parallel and perpendicular lines in various contexts, and use them to describe and create geometric shapes, such as right triangles, rectangles, parallelograms and trapezoids.
- Find the perimeter of a polygon by adding the lengths of the sides.
- Make change up to one dollar in several different ways, including with as few coins as possible. For example: A chocolate bar costs $1.84. You pay for it with $2. Give two possible ways to make change.

**Data Analysis:**

- Collect, display and interpret data using frequency tables, bar graphs, picture graphs and number line plots having a variety of scales. Use appropriate titles, labels and units.

## 4th Grade

## Reading & Language Arts

##### Reading and Language Arts

###### Reading and Literature

**Key Ideas and Details:**

- Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
- Describe in depth a character, setting, or event in a story or drama, drawing on specific details in the text (e.g. a character’s thoughts, words, or actions).

**Craft and Structure:**

- Compare and contrast the point of view from which different stories are narrated, including the difference between first-and third-person.

###### Informational Text

**Key Idea and Details: **

- Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.

**Craft and Structure: **

- Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.

###### Foundational Skills

**Fluency:**

- Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
- Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
- Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
- Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

###### Writing

**Writing Process: Production and Distribution of Writing:**

- Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)

###### Language

**Media Literacy: **

- Create an individual or shared multimedia work for a specific purpose (e.g., to create or integrate knowledge, to share experiences or information, to persuade, to entertain, or as artistic expression.)
- Evaluate the Fair Use of each visual element or piece of music used in a media work and create a list documenting the source for each found image or piece of music.
- Publish the work and share it with an audience.

**Vocabulary Acquisition and Use:**

- Acquire and use accurately grade-appropriate general academic and domain-specific words and phrases, including those that signal precise actions, emotions, or states of being (e.g., quizzed, whined, stammered) and that are basic to a particular topic (e.g., wildlife, conservation, and endangered when discussing animal preservation).

## Math

##### Math

**Number and Operation: **

- Demonstrate fluency with multiplication and division facts.
- Multiply multi-digit numbers, using efficient and generalizable procedures, based on knowledge of place value, including standard algorithms.
- Locate fractions on a number line. Use models to order and compare whole numbers and fractions, including mixed numbers and improper fractions. For example: Locate 5/3 and 13/4 on a number line and give a comparison statement about these two fractions, such as " 5/3 is less than 13/4."

**Algebra:**

- Create and use input-output rules involving addition, subtraction, multiplication and division to solve problems in various contexts. Record the inputs and outputs in a chart or table. For example: If the rule is "multiply by 3 and add 4," record the outputs for given inputs in a table. Another example: A student is given these three arrangements of dots: Identify a pattern that is consistent with these figures, create an input-output rule that describes the pattern, and use the rule to find the number of dots in the 10th figure.

**Geometry and Measurement: **

- Describe, classify and sketch triangles, including equilateral, right, obtuse and acute triangles. Recognize triangles in various contexts.
- Describe, classify and draw quadrilaterals, including squares, rectangles, trapezoids, rhombuses, parallelograms and kites. Recognize quadrilaterals in various contexts.
- Compare angles according to size. Classify angles as acute, right and obtuse. For example: Compare different hockey sticks according to the angle between the blade and the shaft.
- Describe, classify and sketch triangles, including equilateral, right, obtuse and acute triangles. Recognize triangles in various contexts.
- Describe, classify and draw quadrilaterals, including squares, rectangles, trapezoids, rhombuses, parallelograms and kites. Recognize quadrilaterals in various contexts.
- Compare angles according to size. Classify angles as acute, right and obtuse. For example: Compare different hockey sticks according to the angle between the blade and the shaft.
- Understand that the area of a two-dimensional figure can be found by counting the total number of same size square units that cover a shape without gaps or overlaps. Justify why length and width are multiplied to find the area of a rectangle by breaking the rectangle into one unit by one unit squares and viewing these as grouped into rows and columns. For example: How many copies of a square sheet of paper are needed to cover the classroom door? Measure the length and width of the door to the nearest inch and compute the area of the door.
- Find the areas of geometric figures and real-world objects that can be divided into rectangular shapes. Use square units to label area measurements.

**Data Analysis: **

- Use tables, bar graphs, timelines and Venn diagrams to display data sets. The data may include fractions or decimals. Understand that spreadsheet tables and graphs can be used to display data.

## 5th Grade

## Reading & Language Arts

##### Reading/ Language Arts

###### Reading Literature

**Key Ideas and Details:**

- Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing.

**Craft and Structure:**

- Compare and contrast stories in the same genre (e.g., mysteries and adventure stories) on their approaches to similar themes and topics.

**Informational Text**

**Key Ideas and Details: **

- Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
- Explain the relationship or interactions between two or more individuals, events, ideas, or concepts in a historical, scientific, or technical text based on specific information in the text.

###### Foundational Skills

**Fluency:**

- Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension.
- Read grade-level text with purpose and understanding.
- Read grade-level prose and poetry orally with accuracy, appropriate rate, and expression on successive readings.
- Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as necessary.

###### Writing

**Writing Process: Production and Distribution of Writing:**

- With guidance and support from peers and adults, use a writing process to develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, drafting, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach. (Editing for conventions should demonstrate command of Language standards 1–3 up to and including grade 5 on page 41-42.)

###### Speaking, Viewing, Listening and Media Literacy

**Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas:**

- Report on a topic or text or present an opinion, sequencing ideas logically and using appropriate facts and relevant, descriptive details to support main ideas or themes; avoid plagiarism by identifying sources; speak clearly at an understandable pace.

###### Language

**Vocabulary Acquisition and Use:**

- Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies.
- Use context (e.g., cause/effect relationships and comparisons in text) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
- Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., photograph, photosynthesis).
- Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases.

## Math

##### Math

**Number and Operation:**

- Solve real-world and mathematical problems requiring addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of multi-digit whole numbers. Use various strategies, including the inverse relationships between operations, the use of technology, and the context of the problem to assess the reasonableness of results. For example: The calculation 117 ÷ 9 = 13 can be checked by multiplying 9 and 13.
- Order fractions and decimals, including mixed numbers and improper fractions, and locate on a number line. For example: Which is larger 1.25 or 6/5? Another example: In order to work properly, a part must fit through a 0.24 inch wide space. If a part is 1/4 inch wide, will it fit?
- Add and subtract decimals and fractions, using efficient and generalizable procedures, including standard algorithms.

**Algebra:**

- Apply the commutative, associative and distributive properties and order of operations to generate equivalent numerical expressions and to solve problems involving whole numbers. For example: Purchase 5 pencils at 19 cents and 7 erasers at 19 cents. The numerical expression is 5 × 19 + 7 × 19 which is the same as (5 + 7) × 19.
- Evaluate expressions and solve equations involving variables when values for the variables are given. For example: Using the formula, A= ℓw, determine the area when the length is 5, and the width 6, and find the length when the area is 24 and the width is 4.

**Geometry & Measurements:**

- Develop and use formulas to determine the area of triangles, parallelograms and figures that can be decomposed into triangles.
- Use various tools and strategies to measure the volume and surface area of objects that are shaped like rectangular prisms. For example: Use a net or decompose the surface into rectangles. Another example: Measure the volume of a cereal box by using a ruler to measure its height, width and length, or by filling it with cereal and then emptying the cereal into containers of known volume.

**Data Analysis:**

- Know and use the definitions of the mean, median and range of a set of data. Know how to use a spreadsheet to find the mean, median and range of a data set. Understand that the mean is a "leveling out" of data. For example: The set of numbers 1, 1, 4, 6 has mean 3. It can be leveled by taking one unit from the 4 and three units from the 6 and adding them to the 1s, making four 3s.

## 6th Grade

## Reading & Language Arts

##### Reading & Language Arts

###### Reading

**Foundations of Reading:**

- Demonstrate knowledge of oral language, phonological and phonemic awareness, phonics and morphology to read accurately and fluently.
- Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words: Use knowledge of letter-sound correspondences, syllabication patterns, and word origin (Greek) to decode and comprehend unfamiliar multi-syllabic words in and out of context.

**Read critically to comprehend, interpret, and analyze themes and central ideas in complex literary and informational texts:**

- Cite textual evidence to support analysis of what a text says explicitly and inferences drawn from the text; summarize the text.
- Distinguish between stated and inferred central ideas; determine the themes and central ideas and support determination with evidence and inferences drawn from the text.
- Analyze how a particular text’s plot unfolds in episodes and how the characters respond in relation to the plot advancement in literary text.

**Apply knowledge of text structure to understand and evaluate a wide variety of complex literary and informational texts:**

- Analyze how a given sentence, chapter, scene, or stanza fits into the overall structure, including narrative point of view, of a literature text and contributes to the development of the theme, setting, or plot.
- Analyze how a given sentence, paragraph, or section fits into the overall structure of an informational text (including, but not limited to, description, classification, cause/effect, and comparison/contrast) and contributes to the development of ideas.

**Communicate with others, applying knowledge of vocabulary, language, structure, and features of spoken language, considering audience and context:**

- Use vocabulary, language, structure, and features of spoken language to communicate ideas precisely, in a variety of forms including digital and face-to-face interactions, considering audience and context.

###### Language Arts

**Foundations of Writing:**

- Demonstrate knowledge of oral language, orthography, grammar and mechanics to express ideas in writing.
- Use correct punctuation (including dashes, hyphens, and ellipses), spelling, capitalization, and grammar, authentically in writing.
- Develop and strengthen writing by using a writing process including planning, drafting, revising, editing and publishing.
- Vary word choice, showing understanding of denotation and connotation, phrases, and sentence structures as applicable to context, to convey ideas precisely and engage intended audience.
- Engage in inquiry-based learning and research processes to create texts and presentations for a variety of purposes and audiences.
- Plan and conduct independent research from a variety of sources that represent varying perspectives; evaluate credibility and relevance of information, avoiding plagiarism, and share findings in writing.
- Write informative or explanatory texts to examine and convey complex and information clearly and accurately through use of informational and literary text, considering audience.
- Write to respond to a literary text, demonstrating understanding of character complexity (eg, writing personal reactions, analysis and interpretation of text)
- Write narratives, poetry, and other creative texts with details and effective technique to express ideas.
- Write to create, portraying complexity in characters or self-expression in various literary forms (eg, complex emotions, motivations, experiences, and characters who change over time)

## Math

##### Math

**Fractions, Decimals, & Percents:**

- Determine equivalences among fractions, decimals and percents; select among these representations to solve problems.

**Multiply & Divide Decimals: **

- Multiply and divide decimals and fractions, using efficient and generalizable procedures, including standard algorithms.

**Least Common/Greatest Common Factors:**

- Determine greatest common factors and least common multiples. Use common factors and common multiples to calculate with fractions and find equivalent fractions.
- Apply knowledge of GCF and LCM to solve real world and mathematical word problems.

**Multiplying & Dividing Fractions:**

- Multiply and divide decimals and fractions, using efficient and generalizable procedures, including standard algorithms.

**Ratios: **

- Use reasoning about multiplication and division to solve ratio and rate problems. For example: If 5 items cost $3.75, and all items are the same price, then 1 item costs 75 cents, so 12 items cost $9.00.

**Properties/Equations:**

- Apply the associative, commutative and distributive properties and order of operations to generate equivalent expressions and to solve problems involving positive rational numbers. For example: 32/15 x 5/6 = 32x5/15x6 =2x16x5/3x5x3x2 =16/9 x 2/2 x 5/5 = 16/9

**Perimeter, Area, Surface Area & Volume:**

- Calculate the surface area and volume of prisms and use appropriate units, such as cm2 and cm3. Justify the formulas used. Justification may involve decomposition, nets or other models. For example: The surface area of a triangular prism can be found by decomposing the surface into two triangles and three rectangles.

**Probability:**

- Determine the sample space (set of possible outcomes) for a given experiment and determine which members of the sample space are related to certain events. Sample space may be determined by the use of tree diagrams, tables or pictorial representations. For example: A 6 6 table with entries such as (1,1), (1,2), (1,3), …, (6,6) can be used to represent the sample space for the experiment of simultaneously rolling two number cubes.

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